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Versioning MLEM objects with DVC

To use MLEM with Git and enable GitOps, we need to commit MLEM models to Git repository. While committing .mlem metafiles is easy, model binaries and datasets are too heavy to store in Git. To fix that, we suggest using DVC. DVC stores objects in remote storages, allowing us to commit just pointers to them.

This page explains how to use DVC with an existing MLEM project. We will reorganize our example repo to showcase that.

Setting things up

If you want to follow along with this tutorial, you can use our example repo.

$ git clone https://github.com/iterative/example-mlem-get-started
$ cd example-mlem-get-started

Next let's create a Python virtual environment to cleanly install all the requirements with pip (including DVC and MLEM).

$ python3 -m venv .venv
$ source .venv/bin/activate
$ pip install -r requirements.txt

First, let’s initialize DVC and add a DVC remote (we will use a local one for easier testing, but you can use whatever is available to you):

$ dvc init
$ dvc remote add myremote -d /tmp/dvcstore/
$ git add .dvc/config

Now, we also need to setup MLEM so it knows to use DVC.

$ mlem config set core.storage.type dvc
✅  Set `storage.type` to `dvc` in repo .

After the initial configuration is done, we need to decide how we're going to use MLEM with DVC:

  1. We could manually add model binaries to version control. This scenario is covered in the Versioning binaries manually section below (use this option if you hear about DVC for the first time).
  2. We could use DVC Pipelines to version model binaries automatically. DVC Pipelines are generally used to manage all stages of model creation (data cleaning, featurization, training, etc.). This case is covered below in Using MLEM in DVC Pipeline.

Versioning binaries manually

Let’s add .mlem files to .dvcignore so that metafiles are ignored by DVC.

$ echo "/**/?*.mlem" > .dvcignore
$ git add .dvcignore

We may need to stop Git from keeping already indexed binaries. For our example repo, that would be:

$ git rm -r --cached models data

Now we need re-generate them:

$ python train.py

Finally, let’s add and commit new metafiles to Git and artifacts to DVC, respectively:

$ dvc add models/rf
$ git add models
$ git commit -m "Switch to dvc storage"

$ dvc push -r myremote
$ git push

Now, you can load MLEM objects from your repo even though there are no actual binaries stored in Git. MLEM will know to use DVC to load them.

Using MLEM in DVC Pipeline

DVC pipelines is a mechanism to build data pipelines, in which you can process your data and train your model. You may be already training your ML models in them and what to start using MLEM to save those models.

MLEM could be easily plug in into existing DVC pipelines. You'll need to mark .mlem files as cache: false outputs of a pipelines stage.

Let's create a simple pipeline to train your model:

# dvc.yaml
    cmd: python train.py
      - train.py
      - models/rf
      - models/rf.mlem:
          cache: false

We mark the metafile with cache: false so DVC pipeline is aware of it, while still committing it to Git.

You can verify everything is working by running the pipeline:

$ dvc repro
Running stage 'train':
> python train.py
Use `dvc push` to send your updates to remote storage.

Now DVC will take care of storing binaries, so you'll need to commit model metafile (models/rf.mlem) and dvc.lock only.

Learn more about DVC and how it can be useful for training your ML models.

Working with private repositories

If you commit model metafiles to a private repo and use DVC to store binaries, you'll need to authenticate both via SSH and via HTTPS. SSH authentication is required for DVC, since DVC shallow clones the repo underneath via SSH. MLEM instead uses fsspec's GitHubFileSystem to access the repo, which uses HTTPS for authentication.

SSH authentication is usually achieved by running git push against a SSH remote, or can be done using gh auth login (if you use Github).

HTTPS authentication is done by setting GITHUB_USERNAME and GITHUB_TOKEN environment variables. You need to generate a token here or via command line gh auth token.

It's important to first authenticate with SSH, and only then with HTTPS. Otherwise, running gh auth login will complain that GITHUB_USERNAME and GITHUB_TOKEN were already set (it assumes there should be a single authentication method in place, while we need both).


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